What is Supplemental Security Income and How Do I Apply? A Comprehensive Guide


November 29, 2023

When you are planning for your retirement or any part of your future, it’s vital to look at your income and financial goals. For many older adults, outliving their money is a significant worry. In fact, more than 55% of adults are anxious that their assets and financial planning will not be enough to carry them throughout their golden years.

Older adults often live on a fixed income after they retire. Depending on your work history, you might receive a monthly pension or a monthly retirement account payout. This money becomes your regular income that you can count on when budgeting expenses for the month or year. You might also receive money from Social Security.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is an important program aimed at providing financial assistance to individuals with limited income and resources. Administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA), SSI plays a crucial role in ensuring that vulnerable populations, including the elderly, disabled, and blind, can meet their basic needs.

This article provides a comprehensive guide to understanding Supplemental Security Income, including who is eligible, how much assistance one could receive, and the process of applying for SSI.

Elderly couple research medical alert systems.


Table of Contents

  1. What is Supplemental Security Income?
  2. Who is Eligible for SSI?
  3. How Much Supplemental Income Could I Receive?
  4. How to Apply for SSI
  5. Conclusion

What is Supplemental Security Income?

If you have work credits and a history of paying into Social Security each paycheck, you likely already receive money from the Social Security Administration. This monthly payment is called a Social Security Retirement Benefit. Supplemental Security Income is not the same as the retirement benefit.

Supplemental Security Income, commonly known as SSI, is a federal assistance program designed to provide financial support to disabled, blind, and elderly individuals (aged 65 and older) with limited income and resources.

Unlike Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), which is based on prior work credits, SSI is needs-based and doesn’t require a work history. The program is funded by general tax revenues, not Social Security taxes.

SSI is a lifeline for those who are unable to work due to disabilities, allowing them to maintain a basic standard of living. The funds received through SSI can be used for essential needs such as food, clothing, and shelter, making it a critical safety net for vulnerable Americans.

Who is Eligible for SSI?

To be eligible for Supplemental Security Income, individuals must meet specific criteria:

Age, Blindness, or Disability: You must be either 65 years old or older, blind, or disabled. Disability is defined as a medical condition that prevents you from engaging in substantial gainful activity (SGA) and is expected to last for at least 12 months or result in death.

Limited Income and Resources: Your income and resources must fall below the federal benefit rate (FBR) established by the SSA. Income includes money you earn, as well as other forms of support like Social Security benefits. Resources include assets such as cash, bank accounts, and property. The SSA has specific guidelines regarding what constitutes countable income and resources.

U.S. Citizenship or Eligible Non-citizen: You must be a U.S. citizen or fall into a category of eligible non-citizens, such as lawful permanent residents (green card holders) who have lived in the U.S. for at least five years.

How Much Supplemental Income Could I Receive?

The amount of Supplemental Security Income you could receive depends on various factors, including your living situation, income, and resources. The SSA uses a complex formula to calculate your SSI benefit, but they consider the federal benefit rate (FBR) as a base amount.


As of 2021, the FBR for an individual is $794 per month, while for couples, it’s $1,191. SSI benefits increased in 2023 because there was an increase in the Consumer Price Index from the third quarter of 2021 to the third quarter of 2022.

Effective January 1, 2023 the Federal benefit rate is $914 for an individual and $1,371 for a couple (Source: SSA.gov).

Your actual payment might be lower if you have countable income or resources. Countable income includes wages, Social Security benefits, and pensions, among other forms of financial support. Countable resources include cash, bank accounts, stocks, and real estate (other than your primary residence).

To get an estimate of your potential SSI benefit, you can use the SSI calculator available on the official SSA website. These calculators take into account your income, resources, living arrangements, and other relevant information to provide an approximate SSI payment amount.

How to Apply for SSI

Applying for Supplemental Security Income involves several steps, and it’s essential to be prepared and organized throughout the process. Here’s a guide on how to apply for SSI benefits:

Gather Necessary Documents: Before starting your application, gather important documents such as your Social Security card, birth certificate, proof of income (pay stubs, tax returns), information about your living situation (rental agreements, mortgage statements), and medical records that support your disability claim.

Complete the Application: You can apply for SSI benefits online through the official SSA website, over the phone by calling 1-800-772-1213, or by scheduling an appointment at your local Social Security office. The online application is user-friendly and allows you to start, save, and finish your application at your own pace.

Provide Accurate Information: When filling out the application, provide accurate and detailed information about your income, resources, living arrangements, and medical condition. Be honest and thorough, as any discrepancies could delay the processing of your application.

Attend Disability Evaluation: If you’re applying based on a disability, you may need to attend a medical evaluation to assess the severity of your condition. The SSA may request additional medical records and information from your healthcare providers.

Wait for a Decision: After submitting your application, the SSA will review your case and make a decision. This process can take several months, so it’s important to be patient. If your application is approved, you will receive a notification outlining your benefit amount and the date your payments will begin.

Appeal if Necessary: If your application is denied, you have the right to appeal the decision. The appeals process involves several stages, including reconsideration, a hearing before an administrative law judge, and further appeals if necessary. It’s crucial to follow the instructions provided in your denial letter and seek legal advice if you’re unsure about the process.

If you are already on Medicaid or other state assistance, your case worker can help you with the application process.


Supplemental Security Income is a crucial lifeline for individuals who are unable to work due to disabilities, blindness, or old age. Understanding the eligibility criteria, the calculation of benefits, and the application process is essential for those seeking financial assistance through SSI.

By providing a safety net for vulnerable Americans, SSI ensures that basic needs are met, allowing individuals to lead more secure and dignified lives despite their challenges. If you or someone you know is eligible for SSI, it’s important to gather the necessary information and apply promptly, seeking assistance from social workers or legal experts if needed. In navigating the application process, patience and perseverance are key, as the benefits provided by SSI can significantly improve the quality of life for those in need.

Google Rating
Based on 12079 reviews